Jute is a natural fibre popularly known as the golden fibre. It is one of the cheapest and the strongest of all natural fibers and considered as fibre of the future. Jute is second only to cotton in world's production of textile fibers. India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand are the leading producers of Jute. It is also produced in southwest Asia and Brazil. The jute fibre is also known as Pat, kosta, Nalita, Bimli or Mesta (kenaf).
Jute, as a natural fibre, has many inherent advantages like lustier, high tensile strength, low extensibility, moderate heat and fire resistance and long staple lengths. It is a biodegradable and eco-friendly. It has many advantages over synthetics and protects the environment and maintains the ecological balance.
Jute is not only a major textile fibre but also a raw material for nontraditional and value added non-textile products. Jute is used extensively in the manufacture of different types of traditional packaging fabrics, manufacturing Hessian, sacking, carpet backing, mats, bags, tarpaulins, ropes and twines.
Recently jute fibers are used in a wide range of diversified products: decorative fabrics, chic-saris, salwar kamizes, soft luggage's, footwear, greeting cards, molded door panels and other innumerable useful consumer products. Supported by several technological developments today jute can be used to replace expensive fibers and scare forest materials.
1.2 Background of Jute Industry
Jute Industry played an important role in the economic development of Bengal. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Bengal could boast of only one manufacturing industry - jute. It employed about a half of the total industrial workforce of Bengal. In 1900-1, the export value of jute manufactures accounted for nearly a third of the entire export trade of Bengal.
The industry was dominated at the beginning, by Europeans and later, by Marwari. During most of its history, three-quar